Skip to content
Home » How to implement b-tree index in Kotlin

How to implement b-tree index in Kotlin

  • by

A B-tree index is a type of index that is commonly used in databases to improve the performance of search and sorting operations. It is a self-balancing tree data structure that keeps data sorted and allows search, insertion, and deletion operations to be performed in logarithmic time.

Here is a high-level overview of the B-tree index algorithm:

  1. A B-tree is a tree data structure in which each node has a fixed number of keys (B-tree order) and child pointers.
  2. The root node of a B-tree may have a minimum number of keys (t-1), but all other nodes must have at least t keys. This ensures that the tree remains balanced.
  3. A B-tree is always sorted, with the keys in each node being sorted in ascending order.
  4. Searching for a specific key in a B-tree involves starting at the root node and following child pointers until the desired key is found or a leaf node is reached.
  5. Inserting a new key into a B-tree involves starting at the root node and following child pointers until a leaf node is reached. If the leaf node has fewer than 2t-1 keys, the new key can be inserted directly. Otherwise, the leaf node must be split into two nodes, with the middle key being promoted to the parent node.
  6. Deleting a key from a B-tree involves starting at the root node and following child pointers until the key is found. If the key is in a leaf node, it can be deleted directly. If the key is in an internal node, it can be replaced with the predecessor or successor key and then deleted from the leaf node.

By using a B-tree index, you can perform search, insertion, and deletion operations on large datasets in logarithmic time, making it a powerful tool for optimizing the performance of databases.

B-Tree index in Kotlin

Here’s an example of how you could implement a B-tree index in Kotlin:

class BTreeIndex<K : Comparable<K>, V> {
    data class Node<K, V>(
        val keys: MutableList<K>,
        val values: MutableList<V>,
        val children: MutableList<Node<K, V>>
    )
    private var root: Node<K, V>? = null
    private val t: Int // Minimum degree
    constructor(t: Int) {
        this.t = t
    }
    fun search(key: K): V? {
        val x = root
        if (x == null) {
            return null
        }
        var i = 0
        while (i < x.keys.size && key > x.keys[i]) {
            i++
        }
        if (i < x.keys.size && key == x.keys[i]) {
            return x.values[i]
        } else if (x.isLeaf()) {
            return null
        } else {
            return search(x.children[i], key)
        }
    }
    private fun search(x: Node<K, V>, key: K): V? {
        var i = 0
        while (i < x.keys.size && key > x.keys[i]) {
            i++
        }
        if (i < x.keys.size && key == x.keys[i]) {
            return x.values[i]
        } else if (x.isLeaf()) {
            return null
        } else {
            return search(x.children[i], key)
        }
    }
    fun insert(key: K, value: V) {
        val r = root
        if (r == null) {
            root = Node(mutableListOf(key), mutableListOf(value), mutableListOf())
            return
        }
        if (r.keys.size == 2 * t - 1) {
            val s = Node<K, V>(mutableListOf(), mutableListOf(), mutableListOf())
            root = s
            s.children.add(r)
            splitChild(s, 0)
            insertNonFull(s, key, value)
        } else {
            insertNonFull(r, key, value)
        }
    }
    private fun insertNonFull(x: Node<K, V>, key: K, value: V) {
        var i = x.keys.size - 1
        if (x.isLeaf()) {
            x.keys.add(i + 1, key)
            x.values.add(i + 1, value)
        } else {
            while (i >= 0 && key < x.keys[i]) {
                i--
            }
            i++
            if (x.children[i].keys.size == 2 * t - 1) {
                splitChild(x, i)
                if (key > x.keys[i]) {
                    i++
                }
            }
            insertNonFull(x.children[i], key, value)
        }

Tags: